Improving Motivation for Marathon runners

  • By richard watson
  • 06 Feb, 2017

Becoming a better runner

improving marathon running
Marathon Runners

The definition of motivation is that which gives the impetus to behaviour by arousing, sustaining and directing it towards the successful attainment of goals. Abraham Maslow (1954) proposed that we all have a hierarchy of needs, the most basic being physiological needs such as food, and the highest needs being those related to self-fulfillment. Motivation directs behaviour – it organizes behaviour towards a particular goal state. It maintains behaviour until that goal is achieved.

 

The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 26 miles and 385 yards that is usually run as a road race. The marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 500 marathons are contested throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes. Larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants.

Why do people take up marathon running? Sport medicine physician Dr Jack Taunton (2006) recognized that an increasing number of athletes use the marathon to start a regular exercise programme. However more experienced runners will have different reasons that are more psychological than physiological. Individuals who engage in marathon running for the first time compared with experienced runners will, for example, differ in their reasons for participating.

 

Previous investigators have explored the development of motives for participation with runners using retrospective self-report methods. For example, Carmack and Martens (1979) studied 250 non-marathon runners who were recruited at various locations and events throughout Illinois and Indiana. The subjects completed questionnaires that inquired about their reasons for running, outcomes of running, commitment to running, training practices, and demographics. The investigators found that serious runners tended to de-emphasize physical health as a reason for running, and instead, placed increasing emphasis on psychological reasons.

 

In another self-report, retrospective study Johnsgard (1985) asked a large sample of readers of a running magazine, and a second sample of runners over age 50 years why they began running and why they continue to run. He found that both groups indicated a shift toward psychological factors and away from fitness and weight control, although fitness remained the top ranked reason.

Many different theoretical perspectives acknowledge that the factors which motivate someone to initiate an activity are often different from the factors which motivate the individual to maintain or continue to engage in the behaviour. Researchers in the area of exercise have been especially receptive to this position, in part because of the high drop out rate among those who begin an exercise program. Martin and Dubbert (1982) noted that between 50 and 70% of individuals who begin an exercise program drop out within 12 to 24 months. Dishman (1986) has similarly noted that about 40 to 50% drop out within the first 6 months. Lee and Owen (1986) have examined this problem from a number of perspectives, including the cognitive-behavioural and social psychological. They noted that behaviour change is a process which occurs in a series of stages. Consequently, from a behavioural view, early reinforcement contingencies that influence behaviour change may lose their effect as the individual moves from the acquisition to maintenance stage.

 

Along these lines, Shepherd (1985) has proposed that exercise programs be designed to initially maximize external reinforcement until the preliminary discomfort experienced by exercising individuals has subsided. Subsequently these exercisers will become motivated by internal rewards that are inherent in the exercise itself. Kasimatis, Langston and Clark (1992) and Sonstroem (1988) have reported other process models that rely more heavily on cognitive variables to explain exercise initiation and maintenance. What these approaches have in common is the position that the motivation for exercising changes throughout the individual's particular exercise history.

Can looking at the trait personality of a runner help in the motivation for a marathon? Trait theories propose that personality can be described in terms of a limited number of traits which we all have, but to varying degrees. These traits are long lasting and stable; they cause us to behave in characteristic ways. They are therefore frequently evident in the individual’s behaviour, and knowing these traits will enable us to explain and predict that person’s behaviour.

 

Hans Eysenck (1982) proposed from his research that there are a considerable number of personality traits which, because they are related to each other, can be grouped together in two ways. One of these groups is called extrovert –introvert dimensions (called E): - Eysenck argues that human beings seek to maintain a level of stimulation or activation which is comfortable for them. Activation is directed by the reticular activation system (the RAS). However, the level of activation which the individual finds comfortable varies from person to person. This variation is identified in the E dimension.

  • Extrovert  

Biological basis:RAS dampens down incoming information so the individual seeks additional stimulation in order to maintain a comfortable level of activation.

Characteristics:Becomes bored more quickly, is less responsive to pain, seeks change and excitement, and is poor at tasks requiring concentration. 

  • Introvert

Biological basis:RAS amplifies incoming information so the individual prefers low levels of stimulation in order to avoid excessive activation. 

Characteristics:Does not seek excitement, prefers calm and quiet, dislikes the unexpected, prefers order, is good at tasks requiring concentration 

Stable – neurotic dimension (called N): Eysenck’s N dimension is associated with emotionality. Its physiological basis is the autonomic nervous system (the ANS), in particular how rapidly the autonomic nervous system responds to stressful situations.

  • Stable 
Biological basis:ANS is fairly slow to respond to stressful situations and is not very vigorous

Characteristics:Even-tempered emotional stable easy going.

  • Neurotic 
Biological basis:ANS responds rapidly and strongly to stressful situations

Characteristics:Restless, excitable, anxious

What is the use of Eysenck’s theory and relevance of this dimension to marathon running? On the E dimension, introverts were found to be well-represented amongst distance runners. Eysenck also claims that people scoring at the stable end of the N dimension were more likely to be found amongst athletes than amongst the general population.

 

For those runners who are attempting their first marathon, Grete Waitz (2007) suggests that they do their homework fully before starting and training. She continues to say that planning your training with the incentives of finding a marathon to run. Enter an event with friends or a running group will further motivate you. Choose a cause to run for like a charity. All these factors will help you step out of the door on a cold and dark night. Set these philosophies in stone. As a first time marathon runner your goal is the finish line. The clock is not your motivation; its only there to make you stay on pace

 

Using goal setting can be an effective way of motivation. Runners must also know when the goal has been achieved, which is why the goal must be specific and measurable. These principles can be used by marathon runners using the acronym SCCAMP; specific, controllable, challenging, attainable, measurable and personal.

 

Imagery is another way of motivation. Athletes who speak of visualisation, mental rehearsal, imagery or mental practice are all referring to the process of creating an experience in the mind – of imagining something. Imagery can be used to experience many aspects of skill learning and sports performance.  

 

Thoughts of crossing the finishing line triumphantly can help you through tough races, workout and training runs; they can not do it all, especially when the race is far in the future. Using the SCCAMP as described earlier; taking a progressive approach to training helps to motivate, because you are able to continually see positive results from your efforts. Reaching different goals along the way will keep you motivated to reach a new goal that is lightly more challenging and thus push you towards your final goal of the marathon finish line.

using sports psychology to better your running
Crossing the finish line

Other ways to keep motivated and stay motivated can be the use of self-talk. Self-talk refers to the conversations we have with ourselves. These conversations can help us to monitor or direct out thoughts and actions. In self-talk we are interpreting events for ourselves. It is how we interpret these events which is the crucial factor, and will effect our concentration, muscle tension and motivation. How can we change self-talk from negative to positive? Two widely used strategies are:

 

  • Thought stopping: stopping negative thought as soon as it occurs, and refocusing your attention on what is important. Using the word “stop” can help to prevent negative thought from taking over.
  • Substitution: changing negative into positive thoughts so that you see the circumstances in a more positive way.

 

Positive self-talk can help improve performance and motivation by helping to;

 

  • Remind ourselves of a key element in a new skill
  • Break a bad habit: “stop”
  • Motivate ourselves: “hang in there”
  • Concentrate
  • Reduce arousal
  • Reinterpret negative events in a positive way

 

Once a marathon runner has completed a marathon their goals will have changed from either getting fitter or losing weight to one of self fulfilment. An experienced runner will set goals on trying to better themselves.

 

Bandura (1977b) proposed that as people learn they can master things they develop a feeling of self-efficacy, the expectation that they will be competent and successful in a particular task. Bandura (1982) found that those with high levels of self-efficacy try harder and persist longer, but those low in self-efficacy give up in the face of difficulty. Bandura suggest that expectations of efficacy are the major reasons for our choice of activity, the amount of effort we put into it and the degree of persistence we show. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy comes from four sources, these sources are:

 

  • Past performance: Previous experiences provide information from which self-efficacy develops.
  • Vicarious experiences: means watching others successfully perform the task, and called modelling.
  • Verbal persuasion: encouraging performers to think they can do the task.
  • Arousal: the way the performers interpret the arousal they feel will affect their feelings of confidence. Bandura (1977b) argues that what matters is the runners’ interpretation of the arousal in terms of their own performance.

Conclusion

 

There are many tools in which we can use to help and keep motivated, imagery, positive self-talk and self-efficacy will all lead to confidence within the world of marathon running. Having a progressive training plan with selected goals; can help achieve and encourage the runner that they are on the right course and help complete their marathon. For example, the results of this study imply that adherence to exercise may be enhanced if initial efforts are directed toward psychological variables. These could include careful and flexible goal setting and talking to participants about exercise as part of a healthy philosophy of life. Then the introduction of social reinforces that would facilitate the acquisition of an identity based on the activity being performed. Examples include public rewards for achieving certain milestones, announcements in publications, and the awarding of trophies/medals and t-shirts displaying emblems or logos that identify the wearer as a particular type of exerciser. The development of perceived and actual competence is also important throughout and must be considered at each phase of their training. As the marathon runner develops their fitness and becomes more efficient at running their psychological direction must focus towards internal self fulfilment. They still need to use the principals they first used when training for their first marathon (SCCAMP) to be motivated to complete each training session and finish every marathon, but their goal and motivation will be to better a previous time or finishing position and improving performance. Cognitive factors, such as attention or imagery, as well as ideas from learning theory, such as reinforcement have to be considered to help motivation. When runners lose interest they need to discover what attributions they make, in order to help them change their perceptions. Self-efficacy is a key factor in maintaining participation and improving performance; techniques such as goal setting and positive self-talk, along with other factors will help to develop self-efficacy and in turn motivation.
Sports Therapist Richard Watson

Richard Watson

Sports Therapist

Richard is a leading sports therapist in the Coventry and Warwickshire area, he has worked at the Olympic and Paralympic games 2012 treating the many athletes competing. Richard has been involved in many major sporting projects including treating and training a team that took on an accent of Everest. He currently runs his own Sports Therapy company providing local athletes with sports massage and personal training.

In The Zone

By richard watson 18 Aug, 2017

For those people who know me will tell you I am the most skeptical person out there when it comes to new products and fad diets to aid fitness training and weight management. I go to lots of trade fairs and seminars and see lots of new products, most of the time I have made my mind up within 20 seconds. Science has to prove it works for me to believe in something, it’s the way I run my business as a sports therapist and the way I train myself.

 

I first saw the DNA fitness tests in 2013 at a trade show; it was not something I was not interested in at the time so I walked on by. However, after seeing these tests repeatedly pop up on trade and fitness magazines I started to take more of an interest.

 

Over the years I’ve personally battled with injuries from playing sport and had to deal with my own weight issues while being off sport recovering from injury. It’s what got me in to my now profession as a sports therapist; I help many athletes recover, prepare and condition their bodies ready for their events.

 

As a sports person you are always looking for that extra legal edge, that extra bit that will gain you a few seconds off your personal best or just be able to train and diet better for a healthier lifestyle. So I felt that taking the DNA Diet Fitness Pro test was really worthwhile.

 

The reports included an abundance of manageable and easily understandable information about my DNA and also provided focused and implementable advice, which wasn’t just based on eating less and exercising more. I was particularly impressed with the strength of the connections DNAFit made between my genetics and the practical implications the results might have in terms of my diet and fitness.

 

I would recommend this test to anyone interested in improving their health and fitness, regardless of whether you’re a complete beginner or training for a marathon.

By richard watson 10 Apr, 2017

There has been a huge increase in interest in cycling over recent years as more people become aware of the health and fitness benefits’ cycling achieves, as well as its advantages as a fast and economical means of transport. Studio cycling has also grown and has been identified as one of the most popular group exercise formats in clubs worldwide.

By richard watson 01 Mar, 2017

Good bacteria can help you lose weight

True
For every probiotic evangelist there are several that sneered at the idea that these ‘good bacteria’ products did anything other than leave a big whole in your pocket. But according to a recent study, probiotics are very much more than a health food gimmick.

Probiotics, which are available as yoghurts, drinks and pills, contain so called ‘good’ bacteria that manufacturers claim aid digestive health and boost the immune system.

But the jury remained out – until now when a study has found that they do have many health benefits, including proving effective medicines and helping to control weight.

But you need to need to use the probiotics every day to see any benefits and you should be mindful of the sugar content (it’s best to opt for a pill over yoghurt) which will negate any of the benefits.

By richard watson 06 Feb, 2017

The definition of motivation is that which gives the impetus to behaviour by arousing, sustaining and directing it towards the successful attainment of goals. Abraham Maslow (1954) proposed that we all have a hierarchy of needs, the most basic being physiological needs such as food, and the highest needs being those related to self-fulfillment. Motivation directs behaviour – it organizes behaviour towards a particular goal state. It maintains behaviour until that goal is achieved.

 

The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 26 miles and 385 yards that is usually run as a road race. The marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 500 marathons are contested throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes. Larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants.

By richard watson 05 Jan, 2017

Disclaimer
Although, all of the information that is presented in this article is geared toward the benefits and/or effectiveness of anaerobic high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. low intensity aerobic training with regards to fat utilization, there is an understanding that some reasons for aerobic training supersede the outcomes. For the sake of pure enjoyment, personal goal setting (training for a triathlon, marathon, road race, etc), and the challenge of competition are all viable and respectable reasons for interacting with long slow distance (LSD) activities. For many people these types of activities are suitable for their lifestyle and enjoyable means of living an active life. The goal of this article is not to discount or diminish the value of physical activity in all its modalities, but to merely present data with regards to optimum fat loss, hormonal indicators, and other factors of cardiovascular and cardio respiratory markers as they pertain to exercise intensity prescription.

By richard watson 01 Nov, 2016
Cancers are classified as a family of related diseases that result from uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells5 that usually become a tumor. The most common causes of cancer related deaths in the United Kingdom are seen in Figure 1 below.The evidence linking low levels of physical activity and an increased potential for development of cancer is growing. More studies are focused on determining if physical activity can be used as a preventative measure in the incidence of cancer.

Figure 1: The 9 Most Common Causes of Cancer Death in 2014

Number of Deaths per Year, All Ages, UK

Cancer Site                Male           Female       Persons
Lung (C33-C34)       19,563       16,332         35,895
Bowel (C18-C20)       8,566          7,337         15,903
Breast (C50)                       73        11,360        11,433
Prostate (C61)          11,287                               11,287
Pancreas (C25)           4,426          4,391           8,817
Oesophagus (C15)   5,213          2,577          7,790
Bladder (C67)              3,614          1,755          5,369
Brain                                2,881          2,342          5,223
Liver (C22)                    3,055          2,036          5,091
By richard watson 05 Oct, 2016

In the world of endurance, it seems that you cannot discuss fitness without discussing VO2 max. Ask any endurance athlete about it, and you will hear epic stories with names like Indurain, and LeMond. Many of you, however, may find yourselves wondering what exactly VO2 max is and why is it so important. To better understand this concept; let’s take a little trip back to school, specifically back to physiology class. According to the Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning textbook, VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen in millilitres one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/min). In other words, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be used at the cellular level for the entire body. VO2 max has been found to correlate well with an individual’s degree of physical conditioning and has been accepted as an index of total body fitness. Numerous studies show that one can increase his/her VO2 max by working out at an intensity that raises the heart rate to between 65 and 85 percent of its maximum, for at least 20 minutes, three to five times per week. The estimated mean value of VO2 max for male athletes is about 3.5 liters/minute and for female athletes is about 2.7 liters/minute.

By richard watson 14 Sep, 2016

It is ironic that in this age of information, people continue to be confused about supplements. While in The UK alone, billions of pounds sterling are spent annually on vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids and other nutritional products, studies still show that people in all walks of life (including fitness professionals) need a good foundation in basic supplement information to help them make informed decisions about which products might best suit their individual needs. Because of this, the following is a list of what I feel are the top 10 supplements facts that can help save you time and money - and get the most out of the products you use.

By richard watson 27 Jul, 2016

Caffeine is one of the most heavily researched and beneficial ergogenic aids available. It is mostly consumed in coffee, with 1 cup containing around 75mg of caffeine. The understanding of the performance effect of caffeine has increased and this has widened its use. Most people know that “caffeine may improve performance” but what does it actually do and how can we make the most of caffeine?

Caffeine is classified as a stimulant and is the most common drug used in the world. Caffeine crosses the membranes of all the body's tissues. It can wield effects on the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues that result in physiological effects. Studies have shown that caffeine can help an athlete perform better. It has been shown to be a powerful ergogenic aid that is beneficial in athletic performance and training. Caffeine has been shown to increase speed and power output, improve the length an athlete can train, and assist the athlete in resisting fatigue. Caffeine has also been proven to stimulate the brain which contributes to an athlete's clearer thinking and ability to concentrate harder on the task at hand.

By richard watson 08 Jul, 2016

You’ve seen it before, and you’ll see it again. You have been intensely training for months, but you start to mention that you haven’t slept well for weeks, and the stress is starting to get in the way of your performance. You may suspect you’ve overtrained, which is quite common among competitive athletes. While overtraining can occur in a variety of different ways, it typically results from a combination of hormonal, neuroendocrine, and nutritional imbalances, secondary to heavy training (Kreher, 2012).

Learing Objectives:

  1. Identify the signs and symptoms of overtraining.
  2. Determine ways to help your clients recover from overtraining.
  3. Understand the importance of training breaks in the prevention of overtraining.

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